上一頁

In search of a name and identity to ease Taiwan's participation in international organizations (Part 1)

台灣參與國際組織之身分及名稱 (Part 1)2004-02-17 / Taiwan News, Staff Reporter /

INTRO. In recent years, participation in international organizations has become a topic of major attention for Taiwan's government and the general public. In 2003, the Republic of China government on Taiwan for the eleventh time knocked on the door of one of the most important international organizations, the United Nations, using the name Republic of China, but unfortunately was blocked out. What precious lessons can we learn from our numerous failures to be admitted? On January 1, 2002, Taiwan joined the World Trade Organization under the name "the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu." This was a seminal success. Are there parts of the accession process that deserve to be continued or should be reconsidered? The organizers of this forum, the Taiwanese Society of International Law, have especially invited experts and scholars to discuss feasible approaches for the future based on the past experiences of Taiwan and other countries around the globe in applying for admission to international organizations. INTRO.

近年來,參與國際組織成為台灣官方與民間所熱切關心注目的議題。然而2003年,在台灣的中華民國政府以中華民國的名義,第十一次向國際上最重要的國際組織之一聯合國叩關,卻不幸遭到封殺。我們可以從數次叩關失敗的經驗中,整理出哪些寶貴的教訓?而在200211日,台灣以「台澎金馬關稅領域」的名義加入世界貿易組織,這是一項指標性的成就,在申請加入的過程中,是否有值得沿用或思考檢討之處?主辦單位台灣國際法學會特別邀請學者專家,就過去台灣以及世界各國申請加入國際組織的經驗,探討未來可行的方式。

Hu Ching-shan (assistant professor, Graduate Institute of Japanese Studies, College of International Studies, Tamkang University): The political system currently in place in Taiwan is the "Constitution of the Republic of China" (government) which has been amended six times. Incumbent President Chen Shui-bian and Vice President Annette Lu serving as "Republic of China (government)'s tenth-term president and vice president." So what is the connection between the "Republic of China (government)" used here and the topic that I want to examine today "The identity and name Taiwan can use in gaining accession to international organizations"? Regarding this problem, I would like to suggest several focal points for discussion: first, other governments' position toward the Republic of China government on Taiwan; second, which positions in international organizations did the Republic of China government on Taiwan lose; third, what are new approaches for the Republic of China government on Taiwan to join international organizations; fourth, the problems for the Republic of China government on Taiwan regarding accession to the U.N; and finally, I will draw my own conclusion - that is that Taiwan should apply for accession to international organizations, mainly U.N. organizations, under the "Republic of Taiwan" moniker.

胡慶山(淡江大學國際研究學院日本研究所助理教授):在台灣目前實施的政府體制是經過六次增修的「中華民國(政府)憲法」,目前的陳水扁總統與呂秀蓮副總統是「中華民國(政府)第十任的總統與副總統」,此處的「中華民國(政府)」與今天我所要探討的主題:「『台灣』加入國際組織之身分與名稱」有什麼關聯呢?針對這個問題,我想提出幾個重點來討論,第一,各國政府對在台灣的中華民國政府的定位;第二,在台灣的中華民國政府所喪失的國際組織中的地位有哪些?第三,在台灣的中華民國政府加入國際組織的新方式是什麼?第四,在台灣的中華民國政府加入聯合國的問題點;最後作出我的結論--應以「台灣共和國」這個新名稱申請加入以聯合國組織為主的國際組織。

Other governments' position toward the Republic of China government on Taiwan
各國政府對在台灣的中華民國政府之定位

The Republic of China was founded in 1911. After the Second World War, Japan chose to make the Republic of China government its negotiation partner in 1951, and a year later, signed the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty. In 1949, the then Soviet Union was the first to recognize the People's Republic China government. In 1950, democratic Britain followed suit.

1911年中華民國成立,日本在1951年二次世界大戰戰後是選擇中華民國政府作為交涉的對象,1952年簽訂日華和平條約。1949年,最先承認中華人民共和國政府的是舊的蘇聯政府;1950年民主國家英國也跟著承認。

While the United States normalized bilateral ties with (the People's Republic of) China only in 1978 with the "Sino-U.S. Joint Communique," (on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America) it had already begun since 1972 to gradually relax restrictions toward Communist China such as easing controls on trade, tourism, air and sea transport. But we must also pay attention to the fact that the second paragraph of the "Sino-U.S. Joint Communique" also mentions that the United States will continue to maintain cultural, commercial and other unofficial ties with the Republic of China government. On the other hand, with regard to applying related U.S. domestic law, it clearly states that Taiwan (the R.O.C. government) is to be treated as a quasi foreign country. At the same time, the United States went even further, establishing domestic legislation to provide Taiwan (the R.O.C. government) with arms and military technology necessary for its self-defense. Overall, the United States broadly recognizes the de facto existence of Taiwan (R.O.C. government).

美國雖然在1978年的《美中共同聲明》裡才把兩國的關係變正常化,但是從1972年開始,就開始慢慢放寬對中共的限制,如放寬貿易、旅行與航空海運等管制。但必須注意的是,在《美中共同聲明》的第二項裡也提到,美國將繼續與中華民國政府維持文化、通商與其他非正式關係;另一方面,在相關的美國國內法的適用上,明白表示將台灣(中華民國政府)視為準外國的地位來處理。同時更進一步制定國內法,提供台灣(中華民國政府)自衛上必要的武器與軍事技術。總之,美國廣泛地承認台灣(中華民國政府)事實上的存在。

The position in international organizations that the Republic of China government lost
在台灣的中華民國政府所喪失的國際組織的地位

The link between U.N. accession and recognition of a country or government is an important question frequently discussed in international law. In theory, U.N. accession means that the status of the state or the government of the joining country has been internationally recognized. What also deserves attention is the fact that accession to the U.N.'s specialized agencies does not necessarily encompass the kind of recognition mentioned above.

聯合國的加入與國家或政府承認的關係,是國際法上經常討論到的重要問題。理論上,聯合國的加入意味加入國的國家或政府的地位在國際上受到承認。然而值得注意的是,加入聯合國的專門機關,未必就具備上述承認的意涵。

In 1971, the U.N.'s 26th General Assembly decided in Resolution No. 2758 to restore all its rights to the PRC government in Beijing and "to recognize the representatives of its government as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations," while also deciding "to expel forthwith the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek (Republic of China government) from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it." (U.N. General Assembly Resolution No. 2758 (XXVI). The Republic of China government on Taiwan thus lost its legal status in many other international organizations.

1971年,聯合國第二十六屆大會的第二七五八號決議,決定恢復中華人民共和國北京政府在聯合國的所有權利,同時並「承認(中華人民共和國)政府在聯合國乃是代表中國唯一的合法政府」,以及決定即時將台灣的「中華民國政府的代表自聯合國與其附屬聯合國所有組織中追放出去」(聯合國大會決議)2578 (XXVI) 。在台灣的中華民國政府至此喪失其在許多國際組織的法地位。

In theory, problems regarding the right of representation in international organizations pertain to a succession of established treaties. Decisions on the right of representation or a change of the representing government also depend on succession of existing treaties. Consequently, in the past the PRC government said that the various treaties established by international organizations that it inherited (from the ROC government) inevitably resulted from the change in government rather than due to a request by the Beijing government. After the establishment of the PRC, its government incessantly demanded that it be admitted to international organizations including the U.N. as the only legitimate representative of China. But such unilateral action is insufficient when it comes to successfully carrying over treaties. What's needed is the combination of active lobbying by the succeeding government and a decision made by the international organization regarding to the right of representation of its members. Also, if an accession application is not submitted, the succession (of treaties) cannot be automatically recognized. As a result, the PRC has still not succeeded all the R.O.C. in many international organizations to this day.

理論上,國際組織中有關代表權的問題與其設立條約的繼承有關;代表權的決定或代表政府的替換,在一定的範圍上,即意味對條約的繼承。然而過去,中華人民共和國政府所繼承的許多國際組織的設立條約,與其說是政府變更的必然結果,毋寧說是在中華人民共和國政府的意志下,選擇性地進行。因為中華人民共和國政府自成立以後,即不斷針對包括聯合國在內的許多國際組織,要求以代表中國的唯一合法政府地位,加入各國際組織。這種片面的行為,就完成條約繼承而言,仍有不足之處。應該有必要結合繼承政府的積極行動與國際組織中有關代表權的決定此兩項行為;其次,若不存在加入的申請,繼承是不可能自動地受到承認。因此即使在今日,中華人民共和果對於中華民國政府所加入的幾個關於國際組織的條約,仍未能完成繼承。

The problems for the Republic of China government on Taiwan regarding accession to international organizations
關於在台灣的中華民國政府加入國際組織的問題點

Taking Taiwan's application for accession to the WTO as example, Taiwan applied for admittance under the name "Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu," based mainly on Article 33 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. This approach implied considerable legal problems. Accession to GATT was not limited to sovereign countries. On June 23, 1986, Hong Kong was admitted as a GATT member as a separate customs territory that was not also an independent country.

以我國申請加入世界貿易組織的方式為例,主要是基於關稅暨貿易總協定第三十三條的規定,以「台澎金馬關稅區域」的名稱提出申請加入。這種申請方式隱含著極大的法的問題。關稅暨貿易協定的加入並不侷限於主權國家。一九八六年六月二十三日,香港以非獨立國家的唯一獨立關稅地區,受承認為會員國。

With regard to recognition, member status in international organizations outside the U.N. is closely linked to international recognition of the joining country. But even so, in international organizations like GATT, membership amounts to recognition of a member's tangible diplomatic existence. Therefore, it is necessary to gain to some certain extent the understanding of the PRC government, if the PRC and R.O.C. simultaneously join international organizations. The use of the name Republic of China does not mean at all recognition in the strict sense of international law, it does not go beyond toleration in the international sphere.

就承認的見解而言,在聯合國以外的國際組織中,會員資格意味著與對該加入國的國際承認有密切的關係。儘管如此,在關稅暨貿易總協定一類的國際組織中,已承認實質外交的存在。因此,國際組織內中華人民共和國政府與在台灣的中華民國政府的同時加入,有必要在一定的意涵上,得到中華人民共國政府的合意。中華民國此一名稱的使用,並不意味著國際法上嚴格意義的承認,只不過是一種國際上的容認而已。

On April 21, 1993, the Republic of China on Taiwan announced that it would formally apply for entry into the U.N. under the name "Republic of China." For now this meant taking the separated country approach. In the past, West and East Germany as well as North and South Korea had joined as (the two parts of) separated countries, but this approach had one important caveat: the two separated sides needed to be willing to mutually recognize that the other side could join the U.N. If one side was opposed, this model couldn't work.

一九九三年四月二十一日,在台灣的中華民國宣佈以「中華民國」的名義正式申請加入聯合國。此時是以分裂國家的方式,過去以分裂國家的方式加入的包括東西德與南北韓,但這個申請方式有一個主要的關鍵:分裂的雙方必須願意互相承認彼此都加入聯合國,如果有一方不願意的話,就沒有辦法達成這種模式。

The Mainland Affairs Council, in its white paper on cross-strait relations announced at that time, clearly stated the position that the R.O.C. government on Taiwan would not seek to seize the right to represent China in the international sphere from the PRC. The major point of this statement was to claim the right of "parallel representation" with regard to China as long as it did not compromise the status of the PRC in the international community. The main reason why this application was destined to fail is because U.N. General Assembly Resolution No. 2758 recognized one China and the PRC government as the central government representing it. At the same time, if separated countries join U.N. organizations, an essential precondition is that the opposing governments recognize each other or at least tacitly acknowledge each other's existence.

當時陸委會在其所發表的「台灣海峽間關係」白皮書中,明確地表明在台灣的中華民國政府於國際關係上,不會與中華人民共和國政府爭取代表中國的權利的立場。此聲明主要是在不妨礙中華人民共和國國際社會中的地位下,主張所謂關於中國的「平行代表性」。這次的申請未能成功的主要原因是,在聯合國大會第二七五八號決議,承認一個中國及其所代表的中央政府是中華人民共和國政府。同時,關於分裂國家加入聯合國組織方面,其必要條件是對立的政府互相承認或至少是相互默認。

Applying for admission to U.N. organizations is still an important step for the R.O.C. government on Taiwan in seeking international status. But there's no doubt that if Taiwan applying for accession to U.N. organizations using the name "Republic of China", the response of the international community to such action will as before stay within the framework of granting recognition to the PRC government. It is just as Alan James (professor emeritus for international politics and the doyen of teaching diplomacy in Britain) once said. The difference between the existence of a sovereign country and the participation of a sovereign country in the international community is that the latter is more actualized. Therefore, since Taiwan insists on using a name that third countries cannot freely use, it is impossible for Taiwan due to its own definition to become a sovereign country that has sovereign country status in the international community. In recent years, an opinion has formed which advocates that from a standpoint of Taiwan independence, Taiwan should not use the name R.O.C., but should instead apply for admission to U.N. organizations under the name Taiwan.

申請加入聯合國組織,乃是在台灣的中華民國政府追求在國際地位重要的一步,然而無庸置疑地,若使用中華民國此一名稱申請加入聯合國組織,國際社會對此的回應將是依然在給予中華人民共和國政府承認的脈絡中進行。誠如詹姆士(Alan James)過去所言,「主權國家的存在與主權國家參與國際社會的區別,更具現實性。因此,由於台灣堅持使用第三國所無法自由使用的名稱,可將其定義為無法在國際社會達成主權國家地位的主權國家。」近幾年亦有自採取台灣獨立的立場,主張台灣不應用中華民國的名稱,而應該以台灣的名稱申請加入聯合國組織的見解。

In sum, in a certain sense there is a close correlation in reality between applying for admission to U.N. organizations and moves to pursue independent country status. Looking back at the past, the R.O.C. government on Taiwan has not at all been seeking recognition of its state, but only recognition of its government.

總之,就某種意涵而言,申請加入聯合國組織與具有追求獨立國家地位的舉動間,在現實上有著密切的關聯性。回顧過去,在台灣的中華民國政府所追求的並非是國家承認,而僅是政府承認而已。

Taiwan should apply for U.N. admission as a new country and under the new name "Republic of Taiwan
"
應以「台灣共和國」新國家身份與名稱申請加入以聯合國 T

he major reason why the R.O.C. government on Taiwan lost its bid for U.N. representation in 2003 is that it did not clearly state that it wants to establish a "Republic of Taiwan," but maintained on the contrary that the R.O.C. founded in 1912 is already a country. For instance, in a statement protesting the PRC's opposition to the R.O.C.'s (Taiwan) demand for U.N. representation, it still pointed out that "in striving to participate in the U.N., the R.O.C. is attempting neither to take over the PRC's seat at U.N., nor to establish 'two Chinas' or 'one China, one Taiwan'." At the same time it said in even more vague terms that "it is impossible for Taiwan to accept 'one country, two systems.' Taiwan is an independent and self-governing country." Since these two statements are fully contradictory and lack clarity, the failure of Taiwan's 11th attempt to apply for U.N. "representation" was foreseeable.

○○三年在台灣的中華民國政府申請聯合國代表權失敗的最主要原因在於未明確主張要建立「台灣共和國」,反而是主張一九一二年中華民國已是一個國家。譬如,在「反駁中華人民共和國反對中華民國(台灣)要求聯合國代表權聲明」一文中便指出「在推動聯合國參與上,中華民國的意圖,既非取代中華人民共和國在聯合國的席位,亦非建立『兩個中國』或『一中一台』」;同時,更語意不清地提及,「台灣不可能接受『一國兩制』,台灣是一個獨立與自治的國家」,兩者間充滿矛盾與不明確性,遭受第十一次申請聯合國「代表權」的失敗是可想而知的。

TAIWAN NEWS edited by Tina Lee/Translated by Susanne Ganz
編輯李美儀/ 英文翻譯全樹曦

 

 

上一頁